Thursday, December 23, 2010

St Thomas Aquinas and the Quran

Below are the brief comments of St. Thomas Aquinas on Mohammad and his teachings, from his Summa Contra Gentiles, part 1, #6.
He (Mohammed) seduced the people by promises of carnal pleasure to which the concupiscence of the flesh urges us. His teaching also contained precepts that were in conformity with his promises, and he gave free rein to carnal pleasure. In all this, as is not unexpected; he was obeyed by carnal men.
Money:
While on his way with a thousand of his men to invade the city “Domat Al-Jandal,” “he attacked their cattle and shepherds, capturing some, and others escaped. The news reached the people of Domat Al-Jandal so they scattered [i.e. they deserted their city]. The Apostle of Allah came to their city center and did not find anyone, so he stayed there many days, sending troops and dividing armies but he did not capture anyone.”[1]

The biography of Ibn Hisham records that Mohammad was involved in 27 wars (Ar: Ghazwa), and sent 38 raids or fighting groups.[2] All of these were done in a period of approximately 10 years, which means that he fought or ordered a war or a raid once every two months, taking all booty he could. The scenario was pretty much similar to the story above, and often included genocides. (Ibnu Hisham records that Mohammad killed (most probably by beheading) 600 or 700 person from the people of Qurayzah (also ‘Quraida’; a Jewish tribe), & records that some say 800 or 900.[3])

Hadith number in Sahih Muslim (Arabic) 3295 “… 'Umar bin Al-Khattab who was saying: What has happened to the people (that they are retreating)? I said: It is the Decree of Allah. Then the people returned. (The battle ended in a victory for the Muslims) and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sat down (to distribute the spoils of war). He said: Any one who has killed an enemy and can bring evidence to prove it will get his belongings.”[4]

And He made you heirs of their lands, their houses, and their goods, and of a land which ye had not frequented (before). And Allah has power over all things.” (AL-AHZAB/33, 27)

From Rags to Riches:

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 53, Number 386: Narrated Jubair bin Haiya: … Al-Mughira replied: “We are some people from the Arabs; we led a hard, miserable, disastrous life: we used to suck the hides and the date stones from hunger; we used to wear clothes made up of fur of camels and hair of goats[5]

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 24, Number 499: Narrated Aisha: A lady along with her two daughters came to me asking (for some alms), but she found nothing with me except one date which I gave to her and she divided it between her two daughters, and did not eat anything herself, and then she got up and went away…[6]

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 24, Number 497: Narrated Abu Masud Al-Ansar: Whenever Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) ordered us to give in charity, we used to go to the market and work as porters and get a Mudd (a special measure of grain) and then give it in charity. (Those were the days of poverty) and to-day some of us have one hundred thousand.[7]

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 53, Number 390: Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah: Allah's Apostle once said to me, "If the revenue of Bahrain came, I would give you this much and this much." When Allah's Apostle had died, the revenue of Bahrain came, and Abu Bakr announced, "Let whoever was promised something by Allah's Apostle come to me." So, I went to Abu Bakr and said, "Allah's Apostle said to me, 'If the revenue of Bahrain came, I would give you this much and this much." On that Abu Bakr said to me, "Scoop (money) with both your hands." I scooped money with both my hands and Abu Bakr asked me to count it. I counted it and it was five-hundred (gold pieces). The total amount he gave me was one thousand and five hundred (gold pieces.)

Narrated Anas: Money from Bahrain was brought to the Prophet. He said, "Spread it in the Mosque." It was the biggest amount that had ever been brought to Allah's Apostle. In the meantime Al-'Abbas came to him and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Give me, for I gave the ransom of myself and Aqil." The Prophet said (to him), "Take." He scooped money with both hands and poured it in his garment and tried to lift it, but he could not and appealed to the Prophet, "Will you order someone to help me in lifting it?" The Prophet said, "No." Then Al-'Abbas said, "Then will you yourself help me carry it?" The Prophet said, "No." Then Al 'Abbas threw away some of the money, but even then he was not able to lift it, and so he gain requested the Prophet "Will you order someone to help me carry it?" The Prophet said, "No." Then Al-'Abbas said, "Then will you yourself yelp me carry it?" The Prophet said, 'No." So, Al-'Abbas threw away some more money and lifted it on his shoulder and went away. The Prophet kept on looking at him with astonishment at his greediness till he went out of our sight. Allah's Apostle did not get up from there till not a single Dirham remained from that money.[8]

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 53, Number 388: Narrated Juwairiya bin Qudama At-Tamimi: We said to 'Umar bin Al-Khattab, Jo Chief of the believers! Advise us." He said, "I advise you to fulfill Allah's Convention (made with the Dhimmis) as it is the convention of your Prophet and the source of the livelihood of your dependents (i.e. the taxes [jizya] from the Dhimmis.)"[9]

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 53, Number 386: Narrated Jubair bin Haiya: 'Umar sent the Muslims to the great countries to fight the pagans. When Al-Hurmuzan embraced Islam, 'Umar said to him. "I would like to consult you regarding these countries which I intend to invade." Al-Hurmuzan said, "Yes, the example of these countries and their inhabitants who are the enemies of the Muslims, is like a bird with a head, two wings and two legs; If one of its wings got broken, it would get up over its two legs, with one wing and the head; and if the other wing got broken, it would get up with two legs and a head, but if its head got destroyed, then the two legs, two wings and the head would become useless. The head stands for Khosrau, and one wing stands for Caesar and the other wing stands for Faris. So, order the Muslims to go towards Khosrau." So, 'Umar sent us (to Khosrau) appointing An-Numan bin Muqrin as our commander. When we reached the land of the enemy, the representative of Khosrau came out with forty-thousand warriors, and an interpreter got up saying, "Let one of you talk to me!" Al-Mughira replied, "Ask whatever you wish." The other asked, "Who are you?" Al-Mughira replied, "We are some people from the Arabs; we led a hard, miserable, disastrous life: we used to suck the hides and the date stones from hunger; we used to wear clothes made up of fur of camels and hair of goats, and to worship trees and stones. While we were in this state, the Lord of the Heavens and the Earths, Elevated is His Remembrance and Majestic is His Highness, sent to us from among ourselves a Prophet whose father and mother are known to us. Our Prophet, the Messenger of our Lord, has ordered us to fight you till you worship Allah Alone or give Jizya (i.e. tribute); and our Prophet has informed us that our Lord says:-- "Whoever amongst us is killed (i.e. martyred), shall go to Paradise to lead such a luxurious life as he has never seen, and whoever amongst us remain alive, shall become your master."[10]


Carnalities:
Allowing adultery:
Sahih Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 62, Number 13o: Narrated 'Abdullah: We used to participate in the holy battles led by Allah's Apostle and we had nothing (no wives) with us. So we said, "Shall we get ourselves castrated?" He forbade us that and then allowed us to marry women with a temporary contract (2) and recited to us: -- 'O you who believe ! Make not unlawful the good things which Allah has made lawful for you, but commit no transgression.' (5.87)[11]

Marry four women, plus an infinite number of sex slaves
…marry of the women, who seem good to you, two or three or four; and if ye fear that ye cannot do justice (to so many) then one (only), or (the captives) that your right hands possess.” (AN-NISA/4, 3)

Imam Al-Ghazali records that Ali was the most ‘ascetic’ of Mohammad’s companions, and had four women and twenty seven sex slaves!! (i.e. concubines taken as war captives).[12]

Divorce & remarriage of the same woman is allowed three times:
A divorce is only permissible twice: after that, the parties should either hold Together on equitable terms, or separate with kindness.” (AL-BAQARA/, 229)

War spoils, sex slaves
Sahih Muslim, Book 008, Number 3325: Anas (Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) set out on an expedition to Khaibar and we observed our morning prayer in early hours of the dawn. The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) then mounted and so did Abu Talha ride, and I was seating myself behind Abu Talha. Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) moved in the narrow street of Khaibar… As he entered the habitation he called: Allah-o-Akbar (Allah is the Greatest). Khaibar is ruined. And when we get down in the valley of a people evil is the morning of the warned ones. He repeated it thrice. In the meanwhile the people went out for their work, and said: By Allah, Muhammad (has come). Abd al-'Aziz or some of our companions said: Muhammad and the army (have come). He said: We took it (the territory of Khaibar) by force, and there were gathered the prisoners of war. There came Dihya and he said: Messenger of Allah, bestow upon me a girl of the prisoners. He said: Go and get any girl. He made a choice for Safiyya daughter of Huyayy (b. Akhtab). There came a person to Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) and said: Apostle of Allah, you have bestowed Safiyya bint Huyayy, the chief of Quraiza and al-Nadir, upon Dihya and she is worthy of you only. He said: Call him along with her. So he came along with her. When Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) saw her he said: Take any other woman from among the prisoners…”[13]

Slavery
Please refer to these websites:

Killing is the way to Heaven
Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 52, Number 80i: Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "Allah welcomes two men with a smile; one of whom kills the other and both of them enter Paradise. One fights in Allah's Cause and gets killed. Later on Allah forgives the killer who also gets martyred (In Allah's Cause)."[14]

So if you commit a murder (and consequently all other sins), all you have to do to get to Heaven, is go and fight in Islamic armies with the intention of being “martyred” for Allah’s cause. But if you don’t get killed, no worries: you get war spoils, female (& child) sex slaves.

Thus, by promising material wealth and allowing them to indulge in all sorts of human passions, Mohammad gathered followers.



As for the truths [in his teachings], he only brought forward those that could be grasped by the natural ability of anyone with a very modest intelligence. Indeed, the truths that he taught he mingled with many fables and with doctrines of the greatest falsity.

He did not bring forth any signs produced in a supernatural way, which alone fittingly gives witness to divine inspiration; for a visible action that can be only divine reveals an invisibly inspired teacher of truth.
We see Mohammad denied any miracle from the beginning: “And We refrain from sending the signs, only because the men of former generations treated them as false.” (AL-ISRA/17, 59) Still, the people challenged him more: “They say: ‘We shall not believe in thee, until thou cause a spring to gush forth for us from the earth, Or (until) thou have a garden of date trees and vines, and cause rivers to gush forth in their midst, carrying abundant water; Or thou cause the sky to fall in pieces, as thou sayest (will happen), against us; or thou bring Allah and the angels before (us) face to face:  Or thou have a house of gold; or thou ascend up into heaven, and even then we will put no faith in thine ascension till thou bring down for us a book that we can read.’ Say: ‘Glory to my Lord! Am I aught but a man,-- a messenger?’” (ibid. 90-93) The same vein is continued in AL-HIJR/15, and even Mohammad was frustrated because they kept scoffing at him and he could not produce any miracle v. 97: “We do indeed know how thy heart is distressed at what they say.” The same is in many other chapters, we restrict ourselves to these instances: “And if their aversion is grievous unto thee, then, if thou canst, seek a way down into the earth or a ladder unto the sky that thou mayst bring unto them a portent (to convince them all)! - If Allah willed, He could have brought them all together to the guidance” (AL-ANAAM/6, 35) Al-Jalalayn[15] explains: “the meaning is that you will not be able to do this.”[16] Commenting on (HUD/11, 12), Al-Jalalayn says: “You are but a warner, and yours is only to convey [the Message], not to produce what they have requested”[17] i.e. the miracles. In the same chapter, v. 57: “Say: Surely I have manifest proof from my Lord and you call it a lie; I have not with me that which you would hasten” Al-Tabary comments: “They said of the Quran: (these are but) muddled dreams; nay, he hath but invented it; nay, he is but a poet. Let him bring us a sign even as those of old (who were Allah's messengers) were sent (with portents)” (AL-ANBIYA/21, 5); so God said to his prophet: answer them that miracles are in the hands of God not yours, and you are but a messenger, with nothing to do but to deliver what you’ve been sent to deliver.”[18] And again, (AL-ANAAM/6, 109): “And they swear by Allah with the strongest of their oaths, that if a sign came to them they would most certainly believe in it. Say: Signs are only with Allah; and what should make you know that when it comes they will not believe?” Al-Tabary explains: “They said: O Mohammad, you tell us that Moses had a staff with which he hit the rock causing 12 rivers to gush out thereof, and you tell us that Isa resurrected the dead… so give us some miracle to believe you ! So the prophet said: ‘What would you like me to perform?’ They said: “Turn a rock [or a mountain] into gold,’ he replied: ‘If I do that, will you believe me?’ they said: ‘Yes, by God, if you do that we will certainly follow you, all of us!’ So the prophet started praying, then Gabriel came to him and said: ‘You are granted what you wish; if you wish, it will turn into gold. But if they will not believe the miracle we send, we will surely punish them; or if you wish, leave them [i.e. without miracles] until those who will repent of them repent. So he [Mohammad] said: ‘Let it be until those who will repent of them repent.’”[19] Not only was Mohammad unable and unwilling to bring any sensory miracle, he also admitted his inability to utter any prophecy or know the future: “Say: I do not say to you, I have with me the treasures of Allah, nor do I know the unseen, (Ar: al-ghayb) nor do I say to you that I am an angel; I do not follow aught save that which is revealed to me.” (ibid. v. 50) And: “Say: ‘I have no power over any good or harm to myself except as Allah willeth. If I had knowledge of the unseen, I should have multiplied all good, and no evil should have touched me: I am but a warner, and a bringer of glad tidings to those who have faith.’” (AL-ARAF/7, 188) I tell you not that with me are the treasures of Allah, nor do I know what is hidden, nor claim I to be an angel. Nor yet do I say, of those whom your eyes do despise that Allah will not grant them (all) that is good: Allah knoweth best what is in their souls: I should, if I did, indeed be a wrong-doer.” (HUD/11, 31)

Despite Mohammad’s repeated admissions that he is unable to perform any sort of miracles, some Muslims, knowing that no prophecy is established without miracles, have claimed that the Quran is Mohammad’s miracle. See the end of this article for a refutation.

On the Contrary, Mohammed said that he was sent in the power of his arms - which are signs not lacking even to robbers and tyrants.
Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 7, Number 331: Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah: The Prophet said, "I have been given five things which were not given to any one else before me. Allah made me victorious by awe, (by His frightening my enemies) for a distance of one month's journey…”[20]
Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 2, Number 24: Narrated Ibn 'Umar: Allah's Apostle said: "I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah's Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform that, then they save their lives and property from me...[21]
Sahih Bukhari & Musnad Ahmad: Narrated Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet said, "My livelihood is under the shade of my spear [i.e. from the war spoils], and he who disobeys my orders will be humiliated and pay the Jizya [obligatory tax]."[22]

What is more, no wise men, men trained in things divine and human, believed in him from the beginning.
Even the ‘naive’ Pagans did not believe him:
“Nay, say they, (these are but) muddled dreams; nay, he hath but invented it; nay, he is but a poet. Let him bring us a portent even as those of old (who were Allah's messengers) were sent (with portents).” (AL-ANBIYA/21, 5)
They say: ‘We shall not believe in thee, until thou cause a spring to gush forth for us from the earth, Or (until) thou have a garden of date trees and vines, and cause rivers to gush forth in their midst, carrying abundant water; Or thou cause the sky to fall in pieces, as thou sayest (will happen), against us; or thou bring Allah and the angels before (us) face to face:  Or thou have a house of gold; or thou ascend up into heaven, and even then we will put no faith in thine ascension till thou bring down for us a book that we can read...’” (AL-ISRA/17, 90-93)
And they swear by Allah with the strongest of their oaths, that if a sign came to them they would most certainly believe in it. Say: Signs are only with Allah; and what should make you know that when it comes they will not believe?(AL-ANAAM/6, 109)

Those who believed in him were brutal men and desert wanderers, utterly ignorant of all divine teaching, through whose numbers Mohammed forced others to become his follower's by the violence of his arms.
Sunan Abu-Dawud, Book 32, Number 4022: Narrated AbuMusa al-Ash'ari: AbuBurdah said: My father said to me: My son, if you had seen us while we were with the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) and the rain had fallen on us, you would have thought that our smell was the smell of the sheep.[23]

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 52, Number 47: Narrated Anas bin Malik: Allah's Apostle used to visit Um Haran bint Milhan, who would offer him reals. Um-Haram was the wife of Ubada bin As-Samit. Allah's Apostle, once visited her and she provided him with food and started looking for lice in his head...[24]

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 89, Number 299: Narrated Ibn 'Umar:
The Prophet sent (an army unit under the command of) Khalid bin Al-Walid to fight against the tribe of Bani Jadhima and those people could not express themselves by saying, "Aslamna," [i.e. we have accepted Islam] but they said, "Saba'na! Saba'na! " [i.e. we have changed our religion] Khalid kept on killing some of them and taking some others as captives, and he gave a captive to everyone of us and ordered everyone of us to kill his captive…”[25]

Sahih Muslim, Book 019, Number 4294: It has been reported from Sulaiman b. Buraid through his father that when the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) appointed anyone as leader of an army or detachment he would especially exhort him to fear Allah and to be good to the Muslims who were with him. He would say: Fight in the name of Allah and in the way of Allah. Fight against those who disbelieve in Allah. Make a holy war, do not embezzle the spoils; do not break your pledge; and do not mutilate (the dead) bodies; do not kill the children. When you meet your enemies who are polytheists, invite them to three courses of action. If they respond to any one of these, you also accept it and withhold yourself from doing them any harm. Invite them to (accept) Islam; if they respond to you, accept it from them and desist from fighting against them. Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of Muhajirs [emigrants] and inform them that, if they do so, they shall have all the privileges and obligations of the Muhajirs. If they refuse to migrate, tell them that they will have the status of Bedouin Muslims and will be subjected to the Commands of Allah like other Muslims, but they will not get any share from the spoils of war or Fai' [booty] except when they actually fight with the Muslims (against the disbelievers). If they refuse to accept Islam, demand from them the Jizya [obligatory tax payed by non-Muslims under Muslim rule]. If they agree to pay, accept it from them and hold off your hands. If they refuse to pay the tax, seek Allah's help and fight them.[26]

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 53, Number 392: Narrated Abu Huraira: While we were in the Mosque, the Prophet came out and said, "Let us go to the Jews" We went out till we reached Bait-ul-Midras. He said to them, "If you embrace Islam, you will be safe. You should know that the earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle, and I want to expel you from this land. So, if anyone amongst you owns some property, he is permitted to sell it, otherwise you should know that the Earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle."[27]

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 52, Number 73: Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abi Aufa: Allah's Apostle said, "Know that Paradise is under the shades of swords."[28]



 Nor do divine pronouncements on part of preceding prophets offer him any witness.
http://answering-islam.org/Muhammad/Foretold/index.html
On the contrary, he perverts almost all the testimony of the Old and the New Testaments by making them into a fabrication of his own, as can be seen by anyone who examines his law. It was, therefore, a shrewd decision on his part to forbid his followers to read the Old and New Testaments, lest these books convict him of falsity.
It is thus clear that those who place faith in his words believe foolishly."


Additions:
Different Quran Versions: http://answering-islam.org/Quran/Versions/index.html
Textual Variants in the Quran: http://answering-islam.org/Quran/Text/index.html 
http://www.answering-islam.org.uk/Green/seven.htm
http://www.answering-islam.org.uk/Shamoun/quran_variants.htm
Is the Quran miraculous? http://www.answering-islam.org/Quran/Miracle/index.html
Are there any reasons of fittingness why the Quran should be Mohammad’s miracle? http://www.freewebs.com/jacques7/quranmiracle.doc

God’s word is changed: http://answering-islam.org/Authors/Khaled/quran_preserved.htm
Mohammad and Satan http://answering-islam.org/Index/M/muhammad_and_satan.html



[15] Tafsir al-Jalalayn is one of the most significant exegeses for the study of the Qur’an. Composed by the two “Jalals” -- Jalal al-Din al-Mahalli (d. 864 ah / 1459 ce) and his pupil Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti (d. 911 ah / 1505 ce) The English translation is taken from http://www.altafsir.com/Al-Jalalayn.asp

1 comment:

  1. This article is brought to you by my friend from the Middle East who grew up among Muslims and knows Arabic

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